Vygotsky & Bernstein in the Light of Jewish Tradition

Vygotsky & Bernstein in the Light of Jewish Tradition

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Antonella Castelnuovo & Bella S. Kotik-Friedgut
Preface by Clotilde Pontecorvo

Series: Judaism and Jewish Life
ISBN: 9781936235582 (hardcover)
Pages: 310 pp.
Publication Date: February 2015

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Vygotsky & Bernstein in the Light of Jewish Tradition examines the role that Jewish cultural tradition played in the work of the Russian psychologist Lev S. Vygotsky and the British sociologist Basil Bernstein by highlighting aspects of their respective lives and theories revealing significant influences of Jewish thoughts and beliefs. The authors demonstrate that theories and human life are dialectically interconnected: what research can reveal about a man can also provide a better understanding of the very nature of his theory. This book is a valuable resource for psychologists, sociologists and students interested in the sociocultural formation of mind.


Antonella Castelnuovo (PhD, London University) has been teaching Intercultural Communication at Siena University; at present she is teaching Linguistic and Cultural Mediation at University La Sapienza, Rome. She had been Visiting Professor at Hebrew University of Jerusalem and at University of Massachusetts-Amherst. Publications include L'Identita' Multicolore (1994), Ebrei e Protestanti nella storia d’Italia (1996), Minoranze religiose e cultura europea (1999), Giochi di ruolo e formazione interculturale (2007), A Sociocultural Study of Intercultural Discourse. Empirical Research on Italian Adolescent Pupils (forthcoming). 

Bella S. Kotik-Friedgut (PhD, Moscow State University) is a professor of Psychology at D. Yellin Academic College of Education in Jerusalem. Her scholarly interests are focused on various aspects of bilingualism and psychological support in new (foreign and second) language learning and teaching. This has developed into a culture sensitive research dealing with Ethiopian adults, illiterate in their native Amharic. Prof. Kotik-Friedgut initiated and served as scientific editor of the translation from Russian into Hebrew of Vygotsky’s seminal work Language and Thought. Among her recent publications: "A Man of His Country and His Time: Jewish Influences on the Personality and Outlook of Lev Vygotsky," History of Psychology 11(1): 15-39 (with Theodore Friedgut, 2008), "Cultural-historical Theory and Cultural Neuropsychology Today," Handbook of Cultural-Historical Theory (2014), How to Study Language to Learn It (2014, in Russian). 


Antonella Castelnuovo and Bella Kotik-Friedgut have provided us with a highly-original and thought-provoking analysis of two of the most prominent theorists of the twentieth century in the social sciences: Basil Bernstein (analyzed by Castelnuovo) and Lev Vygotsky (analyzed by Kotik-Friedgut).
     Vygotsky, the psychologist, stressed the cultural-historical nature of human development, focusing on language and thinking. Bernstein, the sociologist, developed his socially-based theory of codes aiming to reveal the role of language in the transmission of cultural norms and values.
     Castelnuovo and Kotik-Friedgut explore the influence of Judaism on the work of Bernstein and Vygotsky, and here uncover a strong thread linking their work despite the differences in their backgrounds. The influence of their roots manifests itself through the general themes of their work, as well as in the expression and conceptualization of particular aspects of their theories. The reader will find this book interesting, vivid, and provocative, while gaining a better understanding of the positions taken by these two great thinkers.
— Elite Olshtain, Professor Emerita, School of Education, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
It has already become a tradition to look for the roots of Lev Vygotsky’s theory in the writings of Marx, Engels, Spinoza, and Hegel, and for the roots of Basil Bernstein’s theory in the writings of Durkheim, Sapir, Whorf, Mead, and Strauss. What is basically ignored in these accounts, however, are the cultural and family environments in which Vygotsky and Bernstein were raised and developed. This omission is especially ironic in light of the fact that Vygotsky and Bernstein themselves stressed the importance of family, culture, and social practices as the major determining factors in the formation of an individual’s thinking and worldview. This book is the first serious and successful attempt to deal with this omission by retracing how the experience of Vygotsky and Bernstein as Jews in diaspora influenced their theoretical discourse.
     This study demonstrates that the roots of Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach, as well as Bernstein’s theory of socio-linguistic codes as shaping social consciousness, can be traced to many Jewish religious and cultural traditions and beliefs, including the Torah’s basic humanistic principles; the importance of transmitting cultural knowledge and values from one generation to the next, and of the role of mediators in such a transmission; the medium of language as the origin of consciousness; and the role of socio-collective and historical events in shaping individual needs. Also of great interest to the reader will be the authors’ investigation into how Vygotsky’s and Bernstein’s experiences as oppressed Jewish minorities in an alien environment contributed to the development of their independence of mind, and to their understanding of the need for social justice and education in order to create the conditions for social transformation.
— Yuri Karpov, Professor of Psychology and Education and Associate Dean at the Graduate School of Education of Touro College New York
In this volume, which includes a range of psychological and sociological perspectives, Vygotsky’s and Bernstein’s Jewish background is shown to influence the broad cognitive, emotional, and ethical approaches of both scholars to education and learning development. Language is emphasized as the main semiotic tool that grants mankind the divine power to generate human experience and history. These essays will be of great interest for any scholar of education, addressing both students and specialists from a multidisciplinary perspective.
— M. Serena Veggetti, Professor of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations
Acknowledgements


Clotilde Pontecorvo
Introduction
Antonella Castelnuovo
Prelude to the Inquiry

PART I: JEWS AND JUDAISM IN DIASPORA
Antonella Castelnuovo, Bella Kotik-Friedgut
1. Jews in Scientific Professions: A Quest for a Methodological Inquiry
1.1 Jews and Modernity
1.2 Jews and Science in a Socio-Cultural Perspective
1.3 Jewish Identity and Scientific Professions
1.4 Epistemological Paradigms in the New Sciences
1.5 Methodology: Biographies of Lives, Biographies of Ideas Antonella Castelnuovo
2. The Conditions of Jews in Diaspora
2.1 Judaism in Diaspora
2.2 Jews in Cultural-Historical Milieu
2.3 Jewishness in a Secular World
2.4 A Jewish Weltanschauung?
3. Judaism: The Unifying Principles
3.1 Judaism as a System of Life
3.1.1 Cosmology
3.1.2 The Concept of History
3.1.3 Holiness and Separation
3.1.4 The Idea of the Community and the Just Society
3.1.5 Universalism and Particularism
3.2 The Jewish Mode of Cultural Transmission
3.3 The Bible as a Narrative Genre
3.4 Summary of Judaism’s Basic Principles
PART II: BIOGRAPHIES OF LIFE AND OF IDEAS
Bella Kotik-Friedgut
4. The Jewish Influence in Vygotsky’s Life and Ideas
4.1 Russia at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century
4.2 Years in Gomel’ (1897-1913)
4.3 Vygotsky’s Home Life and Education
4.4 The Gymnasiia and the History Seminars
4.5 University Years
5. Vygotsky’s Creative Work
5.1 From Optimism to Despair
5.2 A Life in Psychology
5.3 Influence of Jewish Background on Vygotsky’s Psychological Theory
5.4 Conclusion
Antonella Castelnuovo
6. Bernstein’s Life and Work in the Light of Jewish Tradition
6.1 The Man and the Mentor
6.2 Biography
6.3 The Social Milieu
6.4 Work and Research
6.5 Early Years: Speech Codes as “Sanctuaries of Consciousness”
6.6 Families as Social Units: Ritual and Ethic
7. Bernstein: Toward the Unifying Principle
7.1 Classification and Framing as Maps of Knowledge
7.2 Bernstein’s View of Judaism
7.3 Bernstein’s Concepts in the Light of Judaic Principles
7.3.1 The Judaic God is Invisible
7.3.2 Holiness Established the Relationship between God and Man
7.3.3 Holiness Is Realized in Prayer, Ritual and Classification
7.3.4 The Perfect Community
7.3.5 Judaism is an Unmediated Religion
7.3.6 Judaism is a Non-Exemplary Religion
7.4 Reflections
7.5 Bernstein’s Language and Consciousness
7.6 Final Remarks
PART III: IMPLEMENTATION AND EPILOGUE
Antonella Castelnuovo
8. Bernstein and Biblical Discourse
8.1 Bernstein’s Codes in the Light of a Biblical Society
8.2 Biblical Narrative and Oral Discourse
8.3 Sociolinguistic Interpretation of the Dialogue between God and Man
8.3.1 Elaborated and Restricted Codes in Dialogues between God and Man
8.3.2 Divine Discourse in Prophetic Vocation: Elaborated Code
8.3.3 Revelation in the Sinai: Restricted Code
8.4 Discussion
8.5 Historical Antecedents of Bernstein’s Codes in the Jewish Tradition
8.6 Concluding Remarks
Antonella Castelnuovo and Bella Kotik-Friedgut
9. Epilogue

Bibliography
Index